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He disagrees, however, with the notion that loyalties are restricted solely to personal attachments, considering it "incorrect as a matter of logic ".
Stephen Nathanson, professor of Philosophy at Northeastern University , states that loyalty can be either exclusionary or non-exclusionary ; and can be single or multiple.
Exclusionary loyalty excludes loyalties to other people or groups; whereas non-exclusionary loyalty does not. People may have single loyalties, to just one person, group, or thing, or multiple loyalties to multiple objects.
Multiple loyalties can constitute a disloyalty to an object if one of those loyalties is exclusionary , excluding one of the others.
However, Nathanson observes, this is a special case. In the general case, the existence of multiple loyalties does not cause a disloyalty.
One can, for example, be loyal to one's friends, or one's family, and still, without contradiction, be loyal to one's religion, or profession.
In addition to number and exclusion as just outlined, Nathanson enumerates five other "dimensions" that loyalty can vary along: Loyalties differ in basis according to their foundations.
They may be constructed upon the basis of unalterable facts that constitute a personal connection between the subject and the object of the loyalty, such as biological ties or place of birth a notion of natural allegiance propounded by Socrates in his political theory.
Alternatively, they may be constructed from personal choice and evaluation of criteria with a full degree of freedom. The degree of control that one has is not necessarily simple; Nathanson points out that whilst one has no choice as to one's parents or relatives, one can choose to desert them.
Loyalties differ in strength. They can range from supreme loyalties, that override all other considerations, to merely presumptive loyalties, that affect one's presumptions, providing but one motivation for action that is weighed against other motivations.
Nathanson observes that strength of loyalty is often interrelated with basis. Loyalties differ in scope. They range from loyalties with limited scope, that require few actions of the subject, to loyalties with broad or even unlimited scopes, which require many actions, or indeed to do whatever may be necessary in support of the loyalty.
Loyalty to one's job, for example, may require no more action than simple punctuality and performance of the tasks that the job requires. Loyalty to a family member can, in contrast, have a very broad effect upon one's actions, requiring considerable personal sacrifice.
Extreme patriotic loyalty may impose an unlimited scope of duties. Scope encompasses an element of constraint. Where two or more loyalties conflict, their scopes determine what weight to give to the alternative courses of action required by each loyalty.
Loyalties differ in legitimacy. This is of particular relevance to the conflicts among multiple loyalties.
People with one loyalty can hold that another, conflicting, loyalty is either legitimate or illegitimate. In the extreme view, one that Nathanson ascribes to religious extremists and xenophobes for examples, all loyalties bar one's own are considered illegitimate.
The xenophobe does not regard the loyalties of foreigners to their countries as legitimate while the religious extremist does not acknowledge the legitimacy of other religions.
At the other end of the spectrum, past the middle ground of considering some loyalties as legitimate and others not, according to cases, or plain and simple indifference to other people's loyalties, is the positive regard of other people's loyalties.
Finally, loyalties differ in the attitude that the subjects of the loyalties have towards other people.
Note that this dimension of loyalty concerns the subjects of the loyalty, whereas legitimacy, above, concerns the loyalties themselves.
People may have one of a range of possible attitudes towards others who do not share their loyalties, with hate and disdain at one end, indifference in the middle, and concern and positive feeling at the other.
Nathanson observes that loyalty is often directly equated to patriotism. He states, that this is, however, not actually the case, arguing that whilst patriots exhibit loyalty, it is not conversely the case that all loyal persons are patriots.
He provides the example of a mercenary soldier, who exhibits loyalty to the people or country that pays him. Nathanson points to the difference in motivations between a loyal mercenary and a patriot.
A mercenary may well be motivated by a sense of professionalism or a belief in the sanctity of contracts. A patriot, in contrast, may be motivated by affection, concern, identification, and a willingness to sacrifice.
Nathanson contends that patriotic loyalty is not always a virtue. A loyal person can, in general be relied upon, and hence people view loyalty as virtuous.
Nathanson argues that loyalty can, however, be given to persons or causes that are unworthy. Moreover, loyalty can lead patriots to support policies that are immoral and inhumane.
Thus, Nathanson argues, patriotic loyalty can sometimes rather be a vice than a virtue, when its consequences exceed the boundaries of what is otherwise morally desirable.
Such loyalties, in Nathanson's view, are erroneously unlimited in their scopes, and fail to acknowledge boundaries of morality. Several scholars, including Duska, discuss loyalty in the context of whistleblowing.
Wim Vandekerckhove of the University of Greenwich points out that in the late 20th century saw the rise of a notion of a bidirectional loyalty—between employees and their employer.
Previous thinking had encompassed the idea that employees are loyal to an employer, but not that an employer need be loyal to employees.
The ethics of whistleblowing thus encompass a conflicting multiplicity of loyalties, where the traditional loyalty of the employee to the employer conflicts with the loyalty of the employee to his or her community, which the employer's business practices may be adversely affecting.
Vandekerckhove reports that different scholars resolve the conflict in different ways, some of which he, himself, does not find to be satisfactory.
Duska resolves the conflict by asserting that there is really only one proper object of loyalty in such instances, the community, a position that Vandekerckhove counters by arguing that businesses are in need of employee loyalty.
John Corvino, associate professor of Philosophy at Wayne State University takes a different tack, arguing that loyalty can sometimes be a vice, not a virtue, and that "loyalty is only a virtue to the extent that the object of loyalty is good" similar to Nathanson.
Vandekerckhove calls this argument "interesting" but "too vague" in its description of how tolerant an employee should be of an employer's shortcomings.
Vandekerckhove suggests that Duska and Corvino combine, however, to point in a direction that makes it possible to resolve the conflict of loyalties in the context of whistleblowing, by clarifying the objects of those loyalties.
Businesses seek to become the objects of loyalty in order to retain customers. Brand loyalty is a consumer's preference for a particular brand and a commitment to repeatedly purchase that brand.
One similar concept is fan loyalty , an allegiance to and abiding interest in a sports team , fictional character , or fictional series.
Devoted sports fans continue to remain fans even in the face of a string of losing seasons. The Bible also speaks of loyal ones, which would be those who follow the Bible with absolute loyalty, as in "Precious in the eyes of God is the death of his loyal ones" Psalms Most Jewish and Christian authors view the binding of Isaac Genesis 22 , in which Abraham was called by God to offer his son Isaac as a burnt offering , as a test of Abraham's loyalty.
Misplaced or mistaken loyalty refers to loyalty placed in other persons or organisations where that loyalty is not acknowledged or respected , is betrayed , or taken advantage of.
It can also mean loyalty to a malignant or misguided cause. Social psychology provides a partial explanation for the phenomenon in the way "the norm of social commitment directs us to honor our agreements People usually stick to the deal even though it has changed for the worse".
Animals as pets have a large sense of loyalty to humans. Famous cases include Greyfriars Bobby , a Skye terrier who attended his master's grave for fourteen years; Hachiko , a dog who returned to the place he used to meet his master every day for nine years after his death ;  and Foxie, the spaniel belonging to Charles Gough , who stayed by her dead master's side for three months on Helvellyn in the Lake District in although it is possible that Foxie had eaten Gough's body.
In the Mahabharata , the righteous King Yudhishthira appears at the gates of Heaven at the end of his life with a stray dog he had picked up along the way as a companion, having previously lost his brothers and his wife to death.
The god Indra is prepared to admit him to Heaven, but refuses to admit the dog, so Yudhishthira refuses to abandon the dog, and prepares to turn away from the gates of Heaven.
Then the dog is revealed [ by whom? Yudhishthira enters heaven in the company of his dog, the god of righteousness. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other uses, see Loyalty disambiguation. Semper fidelis , In Treue fest , Fidelity , and Tryggvi. Retrieved October 15, The Law in the Scriptures: The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd.
Can you spell these 10 commonly misspelled words? Choose the Right Synonym for loyalty fidelity , allegiance , fealty , loyalty , devotion , piety mean faithfulness to something to which one is bound by pledge or duty.
Examples of loyalty in a Sentence the loyalty of the team's fans there was no denying that dog's loyalty to his master. Recent Examples on the Web The real test of loyalty to tradition will come after the ceremony, though.
First Known Use of loyalty 15th century, in the meaning defined above. Learn More about loyalty. Resources for loyalty Time Traveler!
Explore the year a word first appeared. Dictionary Entries near loyalty loyalist loyalness loyal opposition loyalty loyalty board Loyalty Islands loyalty oath.
Phrases Related to loyalty divided loyalty. Time Traveler for loyalty The first known use of loyalty was in the 15th century See more words from the same century.
More Definitions for loyalty. English Language Learners Definition of loyalty. Kids Definition of loyalty. More from Merriam-Webster on loyalty Thesaurus: All synonyms and antonyms for loyalty Spanish Central: Translation of loyalty Nglish: Translation of loyalty for Spanish Speakers Britannica English: Comments on loyalty What made you want to look up loyalty?
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It was they who first questioned the petals of flowers for their lovers' loyalty. Loyalty oath first attested Synonyms Examples Word Origin.
See loyal , -ty 2. Loyalty, allegiance, fidelity all imply a sense of duty or of devoted attachment to something or someone.
Loyalty connotes sentiment and the feeling of devotion that one holds for one's country, creed, family, friends, etc.
Allegiance applies particularly to a citizen's duty to his or her country, or, by extension, one's obligation to support a party, cause, leader, etc.
Fidelity implies unwavering devotion and allegiance to a person, principle, etc. Related Words for loyalty faith , fidelity , fealty , patriotism , honesty , support , allegiance , obedience , reliability , sincerity , adherence , tie , integrity , honor , devotion , trustworthiness , duty , truthfulness , earnestness , incorruptibility.
The Best of the Beast, Sept From Havana to Hero: See the full definition for loyalty in the English Language Learners Dictionary. Translation of loyalty for Spanish Speakers.
Translation of loyalty for Arabic Speakers. What made you want to look up loyalty? Please tell us where you read or heard it including the quote, if possible.
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There's always room for another article. Fakes, fraudsters, charlatans and more. And is one way more correct than the others?
The story of an imaginary word that managed to sneak past our editors and enter the dictionary. How to use a word that literally drives some people nuts.
The awkward case of 'his or her'. Or something like that. Can you spell these 10 commonly misspelled words?
Choose the Right Synonym for loyalty fidelity , allegiance , fealty , loyalty , devotion , piety mean faithfulness to something to which one is bound by pledge or duty.
Examples of loyalty in a Sentence the loyalty of the team's fans there was no denying that dog's loyalty to his master.
Recent Examples on the Web The real test of loyalty to tradition will come after the ceremony, though. First Known Use of loyalty 15th century, in the meaning defined above.
Learn More about loyalty. Resources for loyalty Time Traveler!